When there was no university in the rest of Europe; Takshasila, Vikramshila, Pallavi and Nalanda were the centers global education and to attract students worldwide. The development of modern education in India began with the establishment of Hindu College in Calcutta in 1817. During British rule, the University of Calcutta was the first to grant bachelor’s degree in women in 1883.
After independence, many universities have been opened by the government and the private sector. The main reason behind the opening of these schools should not make a profit but to serve society by providing higher education and research related to social and pure sciences. The student fees were minimal, therefore, these institutions have been creating deficits so that it was necessary to go through donations and grants to cover their fixed costs and operating costs. But gradually there was a radical change in the scene. The education sector is emerging as one of the opportunities the most profitable. The increase in the number of private schools and institutions to support the event. Higher education is no exception. Gradually, most corporations have also entered the scene.
2. Corporatization of higher education sector N
owadays education is an industry that moves billions of dollars. It’s an industry sector services in the field of education as a service with a huge global market in which students, faculty and staff are not teachers resources to generate profits. Thus, marketing concepts are also applicable. Organizations have to market their products and themselves to survive. In this sector, customers are students, teachers are the service providers and institutions are the organizers or marketing and teaching-learning is not to build a nation, but a business for profit. Education at all levels will continue to grow, and cultivates the mind and makes people feel important and useful in the overall development of a country, but for the business sector to develop as a general service sector . Predators and powerful multinationals are directed to public education, including higher education, for profit.
Although largely a government supported most of government services are the consequences of neoliberal economic reforms, to withdraw. The Indian government through privatization, commercialization and deregulation is encouraging this process.
3. Education under the GATS umbrella
In 1996, U.S. exports of education services and training has reached 8. And $ 2 billion trade surplus in education amounted to 7,000,000 dollars. Higher education has been the fifth largest in the services exported by the United States. Therefore, the pressure from the United States to members of the WTO Trade in Services of education is clearly understandable. United States, the European Union (EU), Japan and Canada are the main powers behind the GATS. Although WTO members is the nation-states, transnational corporations from these countries who sit on the all important “advisory” committees and determine policy in detail his program. While denying access to health care and education, decent housing and long-term care for millions of workers and their families around the world, the agreement gives more political power over these companies, which control and dictate public policy.
GATS has two components: (i) the Framework Agreement contains 29 articles, and (ii) a series of appendices, etc. ministerial decisions and commitments lists by each member government, which bind to allow market access, and / or eliminate restrictions on market access. This agreement covers all services, including education. When services are provided exclusively by the government, they do not fall under the rule of the GATS. For service outside the scope of the GATS rule must be completely free. But when the service was provided by the government or part of the price of certain liabilities (such as in education in some of the fees charged) or provided by private providers, which are governed by the rule of the GATS.